Arabic Prepositions – Prepositions in Arabic

حروف الجر العربية

Arabic Prepositions

Prepositions, known as ** huruf al-jarr ( حروف الجر )** in Arabic, play a crucial role in connecting nouns (or pronouns) to other elements in a sentence. They provide information about location, direction, time, and other relationships between words. Here’s a breakdown of some key points about prepositions in Arabic:

  • Function:

    • They link nouns (or pronouns) to verbs, adjectives, or other nouns.
    • They indicate the relationship between these words.
    • Examples:
      • علي (alaa) – “on” (the book على الطاولة (alaa al-taawila) – “the book is on the table”)
      • في (fee) – “in” (أنا (ana) في المكتبة (al-maktaba) – “I am in the library”)
  • Common Prepositions:

Here are some commonly used prepositions in Arabic, along with their general meanings:

  • من (min) – from, of, some of, one of

  • إلى (ilaa) – to, at, until

  • عن (an) – from, about, concerning

  • على (alaa) – on, above, upon

  • في (fee) – in, inside, at

  • بِ (bi) – with, by, in

  • Multiple Meanings:

It’s important to note that some prepositions can have multiple meanings depending on the context. For example:

  • بِ (bi) can also mean “by” (means) or “with” (instrument).

  • No Fixed Position:

Unlike English prepositions that usually come before the noun, Arabic prepositions come directly before the noun they govern.

1 – مِنْ

Has three usages:

  1. With Places

    سافرَ أحمدَ مِنْ مصر إلى الولايات المتحدة

    Ahmed traveled from Egypt to USA

  1. With Time

    درستُ مِنْ الساعةِ السابعةِ إلى الساعةِ العاشرةِ

    I Studied From 7 to 10

  1. Parting

    أكلت جزءاً مِنْ تفاحة.

    I ate a piece of an apple.

    قرأت فصلاً مِنْ كتاب.

    I read a Chapter of a book.

2 – إلى

Has two usages

  1. Places
    ذهبتُ إلى المكتبةِ

    I went to the library

  2. Time

    عملُ إلى الساعة الرابعة

    I worked tell 4 O’clock

3 –على

Has three usages

  1. On

    وقفتُ على الغصنِ.

    I stranded on the branch.

    القطة على الطاولة.

    The Cat is On the Table.

  2. For

جازَيتُهُ على عملِهِ.

I rewarded him for his good job

عاقبتة على حماقتة.

I punished him for his rudeness

  1. With

    إنّه صديقي على أخطائِهِ

    He is my friend With -Despite- his mistakes

4 –في

  1. In- Place

    الطالبُ في المدرسة

    The Student is in the school

  2. In- Time

    سِرتَ في الليلِ

    I walked in the night

5 –عن

  1. Away or out

    خرجتُ عنِ البلَد

    I got out the country

  2. Instead of

    أجَبتُ عنكَ

    I answered instead of you

6 –حتّى

  1. Up to – end of place-

    تنزهت حتّى القاهرة

    I took a picnic up to Cairo – meaning that Cairo was the last step of his trip-.

  2. Until –end of time-

    درسْتُ حتّى الليلِ

    I studied until the night.

7 –رُبَّ

  1. Minimizing
  2. Maximizing
  1. الباء
    1. Because

      خسرنا المبارة بعدم تنظمينا

      We lost the game because we are not organized.

    2. Connector -by-

      مررت بدارك

      I came by your house

    3. Swear –with-

بالله لنْ أخونَ صديق

I swear by Allah I will not betray a friend

9 –الكاف

  1. Comparison

هى كالزهرة

She is like the flower

10 –اللام

  1. Ownership

    هذا الكتابُ لعباسٍ

    This book is for Abbas

  2. Because

    عاقبتك لشقاوتك

    I punished you for being naughty

11 –الواو

  1. Swear

    والله انك لصادق

    I swear by Allah you are Honest

2 –إلى

  1. To

وصلتُ إلى بيتِك

I arrived to your home

  1. Till

علملت الى الساعة الرابعة

I worked till 4 O’clock

12 –التاء

  1. Swear-used only with Allah

    تالله انك لصادق

    I swear by Allah you are Honest


The noun that follows a proposition is Magror .